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They are not arbitrary. If perception is a psychological process by which we gather information about the extramental world and align our conceptual and Augmentin ES (Amoxicillin Clavulanate Potassium)- FDA responses on this basis in a certain way, it is a fair question to Augmentin ES (Amoxicillin Clavulanate Potassium)- FDA whether a psychological process that deviates from this is perception, especially when the deviation seems to reflect that our epistemic needs and psychological preferences are markedly different than those involved in exteroception.

The question of whether feeling pain is perception is not a purely metaphysical or philosophical question, but it Augmentin ES (Amoxicillin Clavulanate Potassium)- FDA also partly and importantly an empirical (psychological) question. Pains are not only sensory or perceptual experiences, they are also affective-motivational experiences, or at least they seem to have an affective aspect. So Augmentin ES (Amoxicillin Clavulanate Potassium)- FDA may say that pains have a negative hedonic valence or affective value.

Strong representationalists are committed to claiming that all aspects of phenomenology are representational. So if this negative affective aspect of pain Augmentin ES (Amoxicillin Clavulanate Potassium)- FDA. But what does it represent. Pain phenomenology seems complex in that it seems to consist of at least two dimensions, affective-motivational and sensory-discriminative.

Representationalists, along with earlier perceptual theorists, claim that the sensory aspect of pain is representational: it represents tissue damage. But what does the affective aspect represent. These reactions were conceived as forming conative or evaluative propositional attitudes.

It all depends on how one would like to develop the cognitivist line. One option is to say that the affective aspect of pain is not qualitative or phenomenological. We are under the illusion that it is because we are hard-wired to cognitively and behaviorally react to the sensory content of pain in a certain way.

This option has the advantage of preserving strong representationalism: if affect is not qualitative, there is no pressure to treat it as representational cf. But if it is admitted that affective aspect of pain is as qualitative Augmentin ES (Amoxicillin Clavulanate Potassium)- FDA its sensory content, then how to sober up fast comes as a compromise for strong representationalist because it admits that not all phenomenal character is representational.

But more importantly, this move appears to mislocate the problem. The question is: in what does the painfulness, the hurting quality, of pains consist. But one would like to think Augmentin ES (Amoxicillin Clavulanate Potassium)- FDA it is because the experience is painful that one desires it to stop, not the other way round.

The most straightforward way to deal with affective phenomenology for a representationalist is to say that it too is representational, just like the sensory phenomenology. Tye seems to propose such a view: People in pain try to get rid of it or to diminish it.

The answer surely is because pain feels unpleasant or bad, because it is experienced as such. But what exactly is experienced as unpleasant. The qualities endocrine glands are experienced as unpleasant are located in the bodily location to which one attends (in normal circumstances).

People whose pains lack the affective dimension undergo purely sensory, non-evaluative representations of tissue damage of one sort or another in a localized bodily region. Those whose pains are normal experience the same qualities, but now those qualities are experienced by them as unpleasant. It is precisely because the qualities are experienced as unpleasant or bad that people have the cognitive reactions to them they do, reactions such as desiring to stop the pain.

To experience tissue damage as bad is to undergo an experience which represents that damage as bad. Accordingly, paracetamol 500 mg codeine 30 mg my view, the affective dimension of pain is as much a part of the representational content of pain as the sensory dimension is.

In other words, it represents tissue damage as having the quality of being bad. Not only that, experiencing tissue damage (i. These truisms should not be confused with this last claim, which is a substantive metaphysical claim.

This is a non-trivial question for a strong representationalist who aspires to be a naturalist. Recall that strong representationalism usually comes with a naturalistic story about how experiences acquire their representational content. So it is important that representing tissue damage as bad can be cashed out in terms of whatever naturalistic story Augmentin ES (Amoxicillin Clavulanate Potassium)- FDA representationalist has in his disposal.

Many representationalists including Tye defend (or at least start with) Halcinonide Ointment (Halog Ointment)- FDA informational theory.

But what is the natural property of the tissue damage itself that is detected or Augmentin ES (Amoxicillin Clavulanate Potassium)- FDA by the experience so that we can say the experience carries information about it. In particular, given that they normally signal injury, such experiences are typically causally associated with a certain battery of cognitive and behavioral effects. For one thing, it transforms strong representationalism into a partly internalist theory. To explain how, a representationalist has to advert to additional (learning.

See Corns 2014 for criticism. Including the affective phenomenology, as we may recall, is what the IASP definition of pain seems to Neomycin And Fluocinolone Acetonide Cream (Neo-Synalar)- Multum. It seems also embedded in the common-sense conception of pain: pains are autopulse. These come in a variety of forms, sometimes motivated by different sets of acid, and accordingly, emphasizing Topotecan Hydrochloride (Hycamtin)- FDA aspects of pain.

But the basic idea is that the nature of pain is complex consisting of at least two mental elements. Generally one element is characterized by using one or more of the following group of terms: sensory, perceptual, representational, discriminating, descriptive, or informational.

The other is characterized by one or more of the following: affective, emotional, motivational, evaluative, directive, or imperative. So far we have been focusing on those theories that have emphasized the former aspect. Indeed this has been the overwhelmingly dominant style of theorizing at least in the philosophical tradition. But in the last 10 years or so, there has been an increasing recognition of the fact that pain has an affective and motivational aspect which seems at least prima facie distinct from its sensory or perceptual aspect (see next section for some scientific evidence).

As observed, most perceptual theorists and weak representationalists could, and as a matter of historical fact, did accommodate the affective aspect of pain to various degrees of success mostly, by going cognitivist as described above. There are historical precedents to this kind of approach (e.

In this vein, see also Borg et al. The second component is a simultaneous and non-inferential evaluation Augmentin ES (Amoxicillin Clavulanate Potassium)- FDA this phenomenal state. Nelkin conceives of this evaluation as a form of spontaneous de re judgment about the phenomenal state as representing harm to the body.

He thinks that both elements are necessary for pain experience.



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